"I'm disappointed that Italy has lost the chance of a Macron"

Tuesday , 18, September 2018 Comments Off on "I'm disappointed that Italy has lost the chance of a Macron"

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Since his government ended in the most difficult times for Europe, former Prime Minister Mario Monti (2011-2013) prefers to observe Italian politics from a distance. Receive La Vanguardia in his office in the Senate to talk about the electoral appointment this Sunday.

Campaigns are always the time of promises. This time there have been unprecedented and notably unreal promises. But in the end whoever is in government will have to render accounts to Europe and this explains why the markets are quite calm. What worries me is that if Europe ends up being again the scapegoat of all evils, it will be increasingly unfriendly to public opinion.

None of the candidates will probably be prime minister.

None of the candidates will probably be prime minister.

One thing that disgusts me as an Italian, now that I am completely out, is that everyone has lost the opportunity to ask the voters for a strong and serious mandate like the one that the candidate Emmanuel Macron asked a year ago in France. Now he is in a process of structural reforms that are difficult and unpopular, but he has the great advantage of being able to say that he was elected with that mandate. That gives it strength, and it has not happened in Italy.Now Antonio Tajani has come into play. Is it a solution?It is a well-known personality in Europe. He has had the confidence of the European Parliament that has chosen him president and surely has a continued European ideal.

Berlusconi repeats that he was expelled in 2011 for a coup d’état. It is true?

Berlusconi repeats that he was expelled in 2011 for a coup d

(He points out an interview with Berlusconi in February 2012) Here he is asked if he feels a victim of a blow. The answer: “It was me who resigned due to responsibility and sense of state.” This is what he has said on many occasions. The reality is that to recover the confidence of the markets I needed to reform the pensions, the League did not want and I did it with Minister Fornero. They are the first elections in Italy at the time of the fake news. False news involves fake programs and a false story.His pension reform, in fact, was strongly criticized. Do you still defend it today?

Absolutely. We had to do it in 15 days. If we had waited another week there would have been a financial explosion. There were imperfections, but six years and three governments have passed, there have been many criticisms and small changes. My prediction is that the government that comes will not eliminate it. From a cynical point of view of political calculation, it is easier to blame Monti and Fornero.

Are you worried that the sacrifices made by the Italians during their rule are lost?

Are you worried that the sacrifices made by the Italians during their rule are lost?

I worried a lot when my government ended, in the 2013 elections, because any of the coalitions that I won would have taken Italy out of the way and then yes, the great sacrifices would have disappeared. We had managed to save Italy without borrowing, and saw the risk that all the work of a few months would vanish. This was the reason why, going against my nature, I decided to enter the scene with a formation, Scelta Civica, which achieved 10% of the votes and thus prevented one or the other coalition from having the necessary majority. If not, in all likelihood we would have seen Berlusconi as president of the Republic, we would not have had Letta, Renzi or Gentiloni or President Mattarella.

 

Could Renzi have been the Italian Macron?

I supported it with enthusiasm at the beginning. He has shown a great capacity to overcome obstacles and to speak to the country with very effective communication, but as head of government he has been less able. It’s about directing an orchestra, not being a soloist. He has lost many sympathies because he needs to create enemies like the air he breathes.

In this chaotic landscape, what is your solution?

I think that the most dangerous scenario will not take place, an alliance between the anti-European populists of the 5 Star Movement and the League. We will have a more or less grand coalition, which is not necessarily a bad thing. I theorize, because I have had the chance to practice it, that when there are hard measures to take, having a great support helps.

What have the Italian politicians done wrong so that populism has grown in this way?

What have the Italian politicians done wrong so that populism has grown in this way?

That is a good question. It derives a bit from this tendency of Italian citizens to think that responsibilities are always those who govern and not our collectively, as citizens, in the great tax evasion that exists. But also, from my personal experience, I say that the Italian political parties gave evidence of high responsibility in the period between 2011 and 2013. But when it came 2013, instead of claiming and saying “we could have ended up like Greece and we have not done it” They reneged and criticized a government that was no longer there, mine, and Europe.

Volltilger loans in comparison: Financial test finds cheapest loans

Thursday , 23, August 2018 Comments Off on Volltilger loans in comparison: Financial test finds cheapest loans

LOANS FOR LESS THAN 2 PERCENT INTEREST EXIST

LOW INTEREST RATE

 The conditions for real estate loans have been favorable for months. However, no one can predict how long the low-interest phase will last. Therefore, home builders and home buyers should secure the top rates for the entire repayment period. Such Volltiger loans already exist for less than 2 percent interest, as a new comparison of the financial test shows. 

Home builders and homebuyers who finance their home loans are still benefiting from the low interest rate environment. So they often get their loan for less than two percent interest a year. But experts expect interest rates to rise again over the next few years. Then many builders can not extend their once low-interest credit probably no longer on the same terms .

However, there are loans that guarantee a fixed interest rate until the loan has been fully repaid and no follow-up financing is necessary. Meanwhile, more and more banks and building societies offer these so-called Volltilger loans, according to Stiftung Warentest. In the current financial test, the experts have therefore taken a total of 67 offers in Volltilger loan comparison under the microscope.

Volltilger loans in comparison: Fixed rates are safer, but more expensive

Real estate lenders attach importance to constant interest rates until they are debt-free, this often has its price. For a loan that guarantees a fixed interest rate for 20 or even 25 years, you pay about 0.5 percent more interest than a loan with a shorter fixed interest rate. Nevertheless, long-term loans are still available for less than two percent , the Volltilger loan 2017 comparison shows by Finanztest.

As a model case, a loan totaling 200,000 euros was assumed for the purchase of a property worth 250,000 euros. In doing so, Stiftung Warentest examined loans with a term of 20 and 25 years and included a total of 56 regional and national providers with or without a nationwide branch network.

Cheapest Volltilger loans compared to national banks

Image result for CHEAPESTFor a Volltilger loan with a 20-year term, the cheapest offers are at a rate of 1.57 percent, granted by a total of twelve supraregional banks. This convince both providers with nationwide branch network as well as without. For all these low-cost loans, a monthly installment of € 970 will be due , with no option of special repayment or rate reduction.

The five cheapest supraregional providers with nationwide branches:

  • Commerzbank
  • Dr. Small
  • HypoVereinsbank
  • Interhyp
  • Targobank

Stiftung Warentest points out that in the Volltilger comparison in 2017, different banks score points. However, the top offer for some is based on the same product that was originally launched by Commerzbank and is now also distributed through other banks.

Tip: Even though a Volltilger loan is popular with many homebuilders due to its fixed interest rates, there are other options for financing your own home. A free and non-binding offer helps builders pin down the key points so they can find the right path for themselves.

At 25 years Sparda Nuremberg scores with Volltilger loans

While the Volltilger loans of regional banks with a 20-year term are not among the cheapest options, the cheapest loan with a duration of 25 years comes from the regional Sparda Nürnberg . There, builders have to pay back at an effective interest rate of 1.86 percent per month 828 euros. The lowest interest rate (1.95 percent) in the supraregional banks is provided by the Baugeld specialists, which have a nationwide branch network and allow for a reduction in rates as well as a special repayment of up to 20 percent of the loan amount each year.

 

The students of Catalonia are already the most paid of Spain

Thursday , 2, August 2018 Comments Off on The students of Catalonia are already the most paid of Spain

Universitats estimates that it will only have seven million for new scholarships next year

Universitats estimates that it will only have seven million for new scholarships next year

 

In Europe they coexist from total gratuity at very high rates

Image result for europe university

The University of Catalonia is the most expensive in Spain , a situation that will increase with the price increase announced for next September. This course, with the current prices, the students of the Catalan faculties pay more than their counterparts from the rest of Spain. Studying Political Science in Catalonia costs 909 euros per course – with the student enrolling in the 60 credits. On the other hand, to study the same career in one of the faculties of Madrid (with the exception of Complutense) costs 843 euros; in Galicia 591; in Navarra 906 (the one that comes closest in price); and in Canarias 517. Medicine in Catalonia – of the careers with greater demand and also more expensive – is 1,423.20 euros per year, while the same degree in the Basque Country, for example, costs 1,135.2 euros. The differences vary depending on the autonomous community.

The increase in fees for the next academic year has outraged the students, who are preparing mobilizations for this Thursday, coinciding with the summit of the European Central Bank. It has also provoked the rejection of the rectors, especially those of Catalonia. The Ministry of Education allows raising the price of tuition up to 66%, so that the student pays 25% of the actual cost of their studies instead of the current 15%, as Catalonia requested. The Secretary of Universities and Research has already said that it will increase the price until the student takes charge of between 20% and 25% of the cost of the race and in fact calculates the impact of the measure, counting that it increases the rates by 66 %, the maximum possible. This would keep Catalonia as the autonomy with the highest education in Spain, following the trend started in 2011.

This course Catalunya raised the rates by 7.6%, the largest increase in the last ten years. Thus, the price of credit in the cheapest careers (63 titles) is 15.16 euros, that of medium cost (81 titles) in 21.46 and that of high cost (10 titles) in 23, 72 The average price for cheap races in Spain is 12 euros per credit and the most expensive ones at 18.58 euros per credit. It is the autonomous community that decides how much the price of enrollment increases. The Secretary of Universities and Research argues in this regard that the Catalan university system “is the one with the highest quality in the State” and links the increase in fees to a better scholarship policy. This course Catalunya allocated 25% of the money entered with the price of tuition to grants (1.5 million). But next year, with a price increase of up to 66%, there will not be many more scholarships. These grants depend mainly on the Ministry of Education, which says that it will keep the same heading this year, but will toughen the access requirements, which will leave more students out. In addition, Education will only pay 15% of the total cost of enrolling the scholars. The rest (up to ten more points) will be borne by the communities. All this in a moment in which the unemployment continues runaway.

Catalonia has the most expensive university in Spain at the decision of its governors, but a smaller proportion of scholars than the Spanish average due to differences in the cost of living. Of all the scholars from Spain, Catalonia has only 11.8%, while its university population is 15%. Universitats i Recerca now calculates that if it raises the rates 66% – the most plausible scenario – will allocate some 30 million euros for scholarships. But of these, 23 million would go to cover the increase in the price of the enrollment of the almost 28,000 students who are already scholarships in Catalonia. Only 7 million euros would remain for new aid. The Secretary wants to appeal the decree of the Ministry to the Constitutional Court. As they argue in Universitats, it is the Ministry that has the responsibility to pay all the scholarships in full. “This way we could destine these 30 million euros to new scholarships, even we could create salary scholarships”, says Castellà. Another possibility to grant scholarships to more people would be for the Secretary to allocate more money to aid.

For now, what is certain is that Spain will create a new group in Europe in terms of university funding. A country where the price of tuition will be in line with the Netherlands, but where the percentage of recipients of some type of aid is around 25% -30%. In the Netherlands, with prices similar to those that Spain wants to implement, more than 90% of students enjoy a scholarship or public loan, according to the latest report of the OECD Education at a glance.

These days it has been heard that Spain must tend to the “European model” to justify the rate hike. But there is no such model. The diversity on the continent is enormous. In the Nordic countries and 14 of the 16 German Länder, university students pay almost nothing to go to university, although their tax system is more progressive than Spanish. In France, Switzerland, Austria or Belgium the rates are cheaper than in Spain, but have fewer scholarships; in the United Kingdom the rates are much higher – up to 9,000 pounds – but scholarships are allocated 0.3% of their GDP, compared to 0.1% Spanish – and 0.15% public loans.

 

Xavier Lucena, 22, is a third year of Nursing at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona and practices in the Children’s Oncology service at the Vall d’Hebron hospital. In the last two years he has been granted a general scholarship from the Ministry of Education, which includes the full price of tuition and a small amount for travel and material. “What they pay me does not cover all the expenses, but it is an aid”, he says, although he is worried about the situation of the next course. “With all the cuts they are making, I do not know if they will give me the scholarship, so I will have no choice but to ask for a loan and cross my fingers to get it.” The first course, Xavier did not ask for help because in the university “nobody informed the students of this possibility”. It was his parents who helped him pay the first tuition, a possibility that at the moment is unfeasible: “My father is unemployed and the only salary that goes into the house is that of my mother”. Xavier’s promotion will be the first to graduate – until now, Nursing was a three-year diploma – but he does not know if he can complete the studies in the estimated four years. The insecurity of receiving a scholarship -or a loan-, together with the rise in the price of university credits, may force you to extend the years of study more than you wish. “I would know very badly, because until now I have taken the subjects up to date,” he laments.

Before studying Nursing, Xavier had completed a training course of dental hygienist and a few days ago had to reject a job in a dental clinic. The conditions were very good, but the workday, intensive and totally incompatible with the race. As a student of Nursing, you must do compulsory internships in different services and during different periods of the course, in addition to attending class. “The schedules are so changeable that it’s impossible to keep a job.” And is that since he started college has been forced to leave different positions to continue with studies.

Xavier’s situation is not unique. Some of his colleagues, like many other university students, can not combine studies with work either and so far they have been able to continue studying thanks to public aid.

At the moment, the price of the credit of the career of Nursing is of 23.72 euros, reason why the matrícula of the course 2011-2012 of Xavier ascended to the 1.423 euros. With the price increases announced by the Government, next year the course could reach 2,376 euros. “If the rates go up much more, it will end up being like an affiliated center,” says Xavier, while he pauses at the Vall d’Hebron hospital for a coffee. “We are going back in time, when some people did not study because of lack of resources.”

 

I know I’m privileged, “says Adrià García, 20, as he strolls through the campus of the Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB). He studied 2nd year of Computer Engineering in this university and his enrollment cost, this year, 1,287.60 euros. He, however, did not have to take care of the payment. The registration was free, just like last year, and also receives 500 euros per month throughout the year, except for two months of summer vacation. Few students in Spain enjoy these conditions. The salary scholarships, through which the student receives a salary, are reserved in Spain to students with very low income.

The Ministry of Education launched these aids three years ago and in 2010-2011 – the last available data – 2.27% of university students accessed them. In total, 32,850 students were exempt from paying tuition and received up to 350 euros maximum – depending on family income – for each of the ten months of the course. Now, the Ministry will toughen the requirements to access these grants, so it is expected that fewer students can opt for them.

Adrià receives 500 euros because his scholarship is private. It is part of a program that the UAB maintains with Banco Santander, which is the one who puts the money. For three years, scholarships have been awarded to 20 students per year. To access this aid, the level of income must not exceed the limits set by the Ministry of Education to obtain a scholarship – for a family of four members, the family income must not exceed 38,800 euros per year in general scholarships, which they pay the tuition, although for public salary scholarships the threshold is lower. In addition, applicants for these private scholarships must have a high academic record. Participating in the Ithaca campus of the university – a program for high school students from the towns near the university – also scores.

Adrià fulfilled all the conditions. With an 8.7 high school transcript and a family income below the limit, he managed to enter the call. “If they had not given me this scholarship I would have tried with one of the ministry, because otherwise at home we would go something fair,” he says.

The help allows you to dedicate 100% to your career. “I do not have to work because the money they give me is like a part-time salary,” he says. In the first one he passed all the subjects with high marks, and this course will do it again. “If I had to work, my performance would not be the same, a salary scholarship allows you to be a better student and take less time to finish the degree,” he adds. Adrià has to approve all the credits each course to renew the aid. “It is normal that they demand us,” he says, “but governments should allocate more money to aid. Some students will not be able to continue at the university without a scholarship. “

 

I suppose that as a dietitian-nutritionist any action carried

Tuesday , 24, July 2018 Comments Off on I suppose that as a dietitian-nutritionist any action carried

I suppose that as a dietitian-nutritionist any action carried

out in schools to improve the eating habits of the youngest children should seem to me a healthy and desirable measure. And in fact, thus formulated the question, aseptically, I think a great initiative.

As a father , in addition, I should like and show my gratitude about the schools being concerned about these issues, especially if it is the same center that puts the means to provide a healthy lunch without requesting an extra spill, as is the case.

But the materialization of the initiative is what does not seem so right, especially considering that in the short time it has been running the only thing that has been achieved among the students is more dissenting followers of the fruit than supporters . More than if no action had been taken or more than if it had been carried out in another (better) way.

The parents were given the calendar of fruits that would be provided on consecutive Wednesdays. All good “on paper”. In the fruita minuta there are tangerines, pears and apples of different varieties, bananas, cherries and plums (taking into consideration the season) etc. The fact is that since the first day the “success” was resounding; to the tangerines there was no where to sink their teeth: dry, bland and skinny … my daughter said she did not eat it, and like her most of those who took them. No wonder, in those conditions I would not have done either. It came the day of the pear, “Conference” for more signs, although judging by the thickness of their skin (they were given unpeeled) and the (not) degree of maturity could have been pears of the variety “unbearable Sermon” . The reality: that the vast majority of pears ended up in the yard wastebaskets and children with more hunger than the dog of a blind man and throwing pests on the day of the fruit .

 I say what would it cost that laudable campaigns to bring

 I say what would it cost that laudable campaigns to bring

the consumption of fruit to the little ones were done properly? Money , many will answer; fruit of more quality and personal to prepare it, I would say (which in the end, is the same as money). Well, that, if you want to promote healthy habits, whatever they are, and you do not get the infrastructure to get it in the best conditions, there is a risk that the shot will backfire and, therefore, achieve objectives (behaviors ) diametrically opposed to the persecuted, in this case, that the fruit has a bad image .

A civil guard sentenced to 6 years in prison for cheating three million euros

Saturday , 14, July 2018 Comments Off on A civil guard sentenced to 6 years in prison for cheating three million euros

 

The Prosecutor’s Office asked for six years in prison for each of them for being necessary cooperators.

The Prosecutor

The Provincial Court of Madrid has sentenced a retired civil guard to six years in prison for establishing in 2010 a scam network of false loans that attracted investors, who never saw more than the amounts they lent or the high interest promised by the indicted.

In the sentence, dated June 30, Section 17 condemns Andrés LG as the perpetrator of a crime of aggravated fraud and imposes an indemnity that totals 3.31 million euros in damages to sixteen people .

In addition, the court acquitted his partner Silvia MD and local policeman Jesús ML, while the other local agent Francisco Javier HM, has also been acquitted after the indictment was dismissed against him before the hearing. The Prosecutor’s Office asked for six years in prison for each of them for being necessary cooperators.

However, the Chamber recalls that the judgment is not final and against it, an appeal for cassation can be filed within five days before the Criminal Chamber of the Supreme Court.

The judges consider proven that the condemned, after knowing in May of 2010 the comfortable economic situation of Juan MG, contacted him to gain his confidence with the intention that the second act as a lender in their business.

The defendant told him that it facilitated short-term loans with a high interest rate (up to 30%) to people in a serious situation of debt who, in this way, could face their debts and access the mortgage market. I knew these people because of their close relationship with the director of the Bancaja branch located in Collado Villalba (Madrid).

 The person denounced and even less to locate it if it exists

 The person denounced and even less to locate it if it exists

Thus, Juan delivered up to 1,951,000 euros to the defendant who would be returned within 30 days. However, Andrew never reimbursed him for the capital invested, under the pretext that he had given it in turn to a certain Eva, who had disappeared taking all the money and Juan had never come to see.

So credible it was to the victim the explanation that both filed a complaint that ended up being filed, “given the impossibility of finding out the real existence of the person denounced and even less to locate it if it exists”.

“The success obtained encouraged him to repeat the operation with other people, inadvertently serving him as propagandist Juan MG, until he ended up organizing a profitable pyramid structure, in which his clients functioned as new investors’ captors,” the statement said.

Andres always received those sums in cash and rarely paid his lenders the agreed interest but in most cases he managed to get them to accumulate capital and reinvest the total in a new operation.

Already in 2011, the defendant extended its activity through the towns of the mountains of Madrid and the capital, gaining the trust of the injured, who lost amounts ranging between 5,000 and 250,000 euros. Many made delivery of the money without requiring receipt or document proving the assignment.

On October 25, 2014, a court in Colmenar Viejo decreed the provisional imprisonment communicated and without bail of Andrés, who was located after issuing in this court a European and International arrest warrant

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Everything is at home

Tuesday , 3, July 2018 Comments Off on Everything is at home

Lie on the sofa to watch a movie, have a good shower or enjoy a good night

We are accustomed to a series of everyday comforts to which we pay little attention and which we only remember when we lack them. The well – being that we enjoy in our homes is very recent -in many cases of the middle of the last century- and, in reality, it supposes the culmination of a very long journey of centuries. The evolution of the house is, therefore, a fundamental and revealing part of our history as a civilization.

According to journalist and architecture historian Anatxu Zabalbeascoa, we can know both the history of civilizations analyzing their battles as well as their private habits. “The rooms in the house, as well as the furniture, tell a story. They enclose many secrets and dark passages of human beings, “he says in the book Todo sobre la casa (Gustavo Gili)

The fact that today we have, for example, a bathroom inside a house or a bedroom separated from the rest of the home in which to have intimacy has to do with the cleaning habits but also with the epidemics of syphilis and plague; with the evolution of technology and medicine; with sex, with death. “Houses are open history books,” says Bill Bryson in At Home. A brief history of private life (RBA, 2011) -. They tell us about war, hunger, the Industrial Revolution, scurvy, the Enlightenment. Everything is hidden there, in the drawers, in the folds of the curtains. “

Examples? Last month, the results of an excavation carried out by CSIC researchers in a 13,000-year-old town in southern Syria were made public. Of the twelve houses of this nucleus, two have a complexity remarkably superior than what, according to the researchers, it is clear that, already then, in the embryo of urban civilization, social classes existed. All our history, then, is written in the form of walls, windows and partitions.

The origins of the house are lost, however, in much earlier times

when our ancestors began to look for places to shelter from the inclemency. The discovery of the fire was, surely, the final push that led them to live regularly inside the caves. From these bonfires to the modern glass-ceramic, nothing less, the history of humanity itself. Imagine now that we show you the new apartment we have just moved to. Think, as a host would do in this case, we show you one by one the rooms of our new house, whose roots are lost in time.

The bedroom

The sanctuary of intimacy. But it always have been like that? Well, no, because that concept of intimacy is recent: it appears, in the best of cases, in the eighteenth century, and yet, says Zabalbeascoa, “is the key and the consequence that will result in modern bedrooms.” Before, for centuries, neither the humble nor the wealthy classes enjoyed their own space for very different reasons.

In the middle ages, the dormitory of the well-to-do urban classes was often a room located within another one in which visits were received and even, in the case of the rulers, matters of state were dealt with. Therefore, it is not surprising that the room was so ostentatious that in fact some had two types of bed: the day, ornate and thought to be seen, and night.

In the countryside and on the farms, families with prospects could sleep with their servants at the foot of the bed, but not to attend to their most urgent needs but as a measure anti-theft! And as for the more modest layers of the population, there was a single space, dark and poorly ventilated, near the fire and next to their cattle, in which whole families slept together, including visits, and without even undress. At the most, the difference in status between, for example, the parents and their children or the owner of the house and a servant, was expressed in that the former slept in a precarious bed and the latter, on the floor. Obviously, the concept of a guest room would have seemed a joke, and that of comfort, an illusion in a society that basically struggled for survival. Sleeping in a bed-for whoever had it-was a good idea, and doing it on the floor was an experience, nefarious, but experience after all. Even in the best houses – jump to the chair – the ground was covered with reeds, “covering spit, vomit and urine of animals and men, spilled beer, leftovers and other crap.” This is what Bryson explains in En Casa. A brief history of private life . A couple of times a year, a new layer of cane was thrown over the previous one and you’re ready!

The soil was the perfect incubator for all kinds of insects, rodents and diseases. And one last detail about those charming and comfortable years: staying in an inn could mean sharing a bed with a stranger or even having to give up your mattress to a stranger if he had more status.

The Renaissance was a radical improvement and the bedroom became the center of life since almost everything was in it: the views, business … It is said that Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) saw the emergence of the Baroque came to have more than 48 beds, which over time were replaced by sofas and couches. It is in the eighteenth century when the bedroom begins to be less of a meeting place and more a discrete room in which you fall asleep! There is the germ of values ​​as precious as those of intimacy and comfort.

The Industrial Revolution and the technological innovations of the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries also had a lot to do with our rooms being as they are. Until then, the beds were large wooden frames. From then on, they began to manufacture metal beds – much cheaper – and weave cotton bedding, hitherto nonexistent. These first sheets, says Zabalbeascoa in Todo sobre la casa, were boiled to kill bedbugs, “which was key to improving hygiene in the bedroom.”

Series production gave way to more comfortable and affordable houses, unthinkable to conceive two centuries before. Also, already entered the twentieth century, smaller and, as in a historical loop, multifunctional, in which there is a computer, television.

“There are cultures that favor cleaning and others, which are soothing, that avoid treating the issue of cleanliness,” says Zabalbeascoa. A medieval monk had more means to be clean than a nineteenth-century European and a Caribbean Indian was neater than either. ” The Greeks were excited to bathe, like the Romans. On the other hand, in the eyes of Christians it was something morally dirty. The fall of the Roman Empire meant the closing of the baths and hygiene in Europe suffered a setback that would last a thousand years until the scientific and hygienist revolution of the nineteenth century paid off. Pasteur assured that the germs hidden in the dirt were the main reason for getting sick. The basins that were in the courtyards or outside the houses began to enter the bedrooms, and in the cities began to proliferate public washrooms and showers.

In the middle of the 19th century, pipes began to enter buildings and carry running water. The final step was to heat it. “One of the first heating systems, which was shown at the Great Exhibition of London in 1851, featured a copper tub with a small furnace at one end through which the water passed before reaching the right temperature for the bath”, collects Zabalbeascoa.

Inventions aside, at the end of the 19th century

most households still did not have a bathroom. It will not be until 1930, thanks to the industrial production of bathtubs, toilets and sinks, that the prices became cheaper and massive bathrooms began to be installed in the homes. But, although today it is hard to believe, in Spain, that all houses had their corresponding shower was not yet a reality at the beginning of the seventies. Looking back and thinking about it supposes a historical memory bath.

Place of meeting, of socialization, town of electrical appliances and utensils that make the life theoretically simple (as long as we know how to program them), to the kitchen it happens as to the bathroom. Until the twentieth century, it had no place of its own and was a well of problems and domestic accidents. The problem of playing with fire. In ancient Rome, the wealthiest families – a minority – had an oven to prepare food outside the house. However, most citizens resided in buildings called insulae , where they had a room dedicated to cooking food without much security. The fires were so frequent that there were buckets of water scattered around the streets to suffocate them. And so until the Emperor Augustus, in the year 6, decided to end this precarious fire system and created the first professional firefighters in history.

In the Middle Ages, in humble homes, holes were started in the middle of the floor of the rooms, where they lit a fire that served to warm up but also to cook … how much house burning! In the seventh century, the archbishop of Canterbury claimed that all these mishaps were the fault solely and exclusively of women.

The smoke, in addition made the atmosphere in the house unbearable.

The smoke, in addition made the atmosphere in the house unbearable.

Piercing the roof was opening the door to bad weather. Then came the fireplace that the great monasteries and abbeys tried. An interesting fact: thanks to the chimneys, the houses became more spacious and, most importantly, they started to grow one floor up. On that second floor, the families devised a great room in which they did exactly the same as downstairs – to sleep, eat, rest, play – but giving way to the concept of personal space. A fundamental advance to separate the kitchen from the rest of the house was the appearance of the domestic oven in 1830. In 1854 there was an event that would change the evolution of the stoves: the appearance of gas . The smoke was no longer a nuisance and the fire was paid when it was unnecessary. Six years later, the first refrigerators appeared, which represented a fundamental advance to preserve food.

It is true that for 20 centuries the kitchen had been relegated to oblivion, but since 1950 the architects have tried to connect it with the rest of the home and the designers, to turn it into a comfortable , practical, and tasteful space.

Nowadays, we often eat in the kitchen. Or maybe in the dining room. But throughout history, it was done where possible. In fact, until the eighteenth century there was no definite place for it. Because there were not, there were no tables. People put wooden boards on easels. And even in the humblest houses, they were placed on their knees and when they were not used they leaned against the wall. That began to serve the food in a room designed for it had to do, in large part, with the decoration. From the seventeenth it became fashionable to upholster chairs and armchairs, something that was extremely expensive, and the ladies were up to the bun to find stains of grease on their furniture. In the absence of napkins, diners had a habit of wiping their fingers on them. The fact that the dining room appeared marked when it was eaten and how. Even the way to serve food was changed. Before 1850, the foods that made up the agape were all placed on the table, the diners were filling the dishes or asking the servants to do it. But then, fashion changed and the food began to be served in order: starters, first, seconds. A problem: if someone ate very slowly, we had to wait for it. Thus, the dinners happened to last hours.

For many centuries, living room, dining room and bedroom, in most of the houses

For many centuries, living room, dining room and bedroom, in most of the houses

were the same space. In fact, until the fifteenth century the living room was the house. It is from then on when some partitions begin to rise and two rooms appear, one of which acts as a living room. That was in the wealthy families, because in the rest of the houses, where the majority of the population lived, no differences were established between spaces.

It was in the living room that, in the moneyed classes, banquets were held and visitors were received. Later, they began to allocate other rooms of the house to this end. Although they were not too cozy , at least for current tastes. They were empty rooms, in which the chairs were supported on the wall and the table folded. They looked like waiting rooms. The hall was transformed into a more comfortable common space where, in the middle of the 18th century and in the noble houses, the banquets gave way to rooms dedicated to concerts, games and reading. It had become the heart of the home and tenants began to worry about giving it all kinds of comforts : soft sofas, upholstered and upholstered canapés. Even decorative magazines were born, aimed at a female audience where they are advised on how to decorate the room and make it more welcoming.

After the Second World War, the living room becomes more practical and more with the arrival of plastic in the home, simple prefabricated furniture , which could be structured by modules, more adapted to the reduction of the size of the houses, in which they begin to proliferate electrical appliances.

All this is the result of the massification of industrial production, which makes furniture cheaper. From the technological point of view, television occupied the place in the center of the home that had long held the fireplace. The furniture begins to be thought and manufactured to place them around it.

The history of private life and home is, then, the story of leaving feeling comfortable and comfortable, a conquest that humanity was getting as survival was assured. Until the eighteenth century the concept of feeling this way at home did not exist, nor even had a word for it. Comfortable, back then, it simply meant the ability to be comforted. No longer.

Fonplata decides to strengthen its loan capacity in the face of growing demand

Tuesday , 26, June 2018 Comments Off on Fonplata decides to strengthen its loan capacity in the face of growing demand

composed of Argentina Bolivia Brazil Paraguay and Uruguay

“Given the success of the operational programs developed with the countries and in response to the growing investment demands, the ministers announced the decision to strengthen Fonplata’s lending capacity by accelerating the integration of capital,” said the regional development incentive fund. in a statement released at the end of the meeting.

The governors of Fonplata highlighted in the final document of their meeting “the challenges overcome to turn the institution into a relevant, agile and efficient tool prepared to accompany the development and integration of the region”.

A concession fund was also announced in the Board of Governors to establish preferential rates in support operations for Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay, with the objective of compensating the asymmetries of Bolivians and Paraguayans in particular and, to a lesser extent, of Uruguayans, in front of to the giants Brazil and Argentina.

The Fonplata executive president, Juan Notaro Fraga, told Efe that in the case of Paraguay and Bolivia the compensation with the preferential interest rates for the credits will be 75%, while for Uruguay it will be 50%.

This mechanism of compensation was defined by the governors as “a tool of partnership for solidarity” in order to favor the “least developed” countries.

The delegates from Bolivia, Brazil and Uruguay announced at the meeting that their respective countries completed the internal processes for the subscription of approved capital together with the restructuring of the fund in 2012, two of them even with the respective approval in the national congresses.

Argentina and Paraguay, for their part, continue to make progress in the corresponding legislative processes, and approval is expected in the coming months.

The governors approved the report and the 2013 Balance of the entity and analyzed the results of the management that gave “priority” to the “focus of favoring the countries and geographic areas of less development”.

Since the last Board of Governors, held in June 2013, five projects were approved for 125 million dollars (91,667,100 euros) for Argentina and Bolivia, and before the end of the year the approval of seven more operations is expected for 225 million of dollars (165 million euros) for the five member countries of the fund.

At the meeting, the Brazilian Minister of Planning, Miriam Belchior, assumed the Presidency of the Assembly of Governors, which was chaired by her Bolivian counterpart Viviana Caro.

The Minister of Finance of Paraguay, Germán Rojas Irigoyen, also participated in the meeting; the head of Economy and Finance of Uruguay, Mario Bergara Duque, and the director of Projects with International Credit Organizations, of the Ministry of Economy and Public Finance of Argentina, Ignacio Negroni.

In his speech, Belchior stressed that “an important step was taken in the direction of the institutional transformation of the Fund”, while Bergara stressed that “operating in specific financing niches allows Fonplata to interact with other financial organizations in projects of small amounts” .

Projects that, according to the Uruguayan minister, despite their small amount, are “important for our countries” and, at the same time, allow “to be integrated into the new regional architecture”.

Negroni said that “the strength of the organization today is due to the absence of external constraints given its status as a financial institution of regional development,” while Caro said that the Fonplata “has developed a very important and very rapid response capacity.”

The fund, in Caro’s opinion, “is filling a space for funding for the five countries that were needed.”

Parallel to the Board of Governors, a $ 25 million (€ 18,333,400) financing contract was signed at the São Paulo meeting for the construction of a second road section of the Santa Cruz de La Sierra-Cochabamba Bolivian route. between Puente Mariposas and Puente Chimoré.

The contract was signed between the Bolivian minister and the president of Fonplata.

The contract was signed between the Bolivian minister and the president of Fonplata.

The Fonplata, based in the Bolivian city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, was created in 1974 to provide financial and technical support in the region.

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